References For the Neuro-Inflammatory Blog Series on ME/CFS (Marco)


References for the Neuroinflammatory Series by Marco can be found on this page

Are people with ME/CFs caught in a self-perpetuating vicious neuroinflammatory cycle?

Are people with ME/CFs caught in a self-perpetuating vicious neuroinflammatory cycle?



Neurometabolic Functioning and Neuropsychological Correlates in Children With ADHD-H: Preliminary Findings Helen Courvoisie, M.D.; Stephen R. Hooper, Ph.D.; Camille Fine, Ph.D.; Lester Kwock, Ph.D.; Mauricio Castillo, M.D.

Glutamate and dopamine components in schizophrenia. Philip Seeman

Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium

Same Genetic Basis Found in 5 Types of Mental Disorders Gina Kolata, New York Times, 28 February, 2013

Novel glutamatergic agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Machado-Vieira R, Ibrahim L, Henter ID, Zarate CA Jr.

The role of glutamate in anxiety and related disorders. Cortese BM, Phan KL.

Glutamate abnormalities in obsessive compulsive disorder: neurobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Pittenger C, Bloch MH, Williams K.

Tlx1/3 and Ptf1a Control the Expression of Distinct Sets of Transmitter and Peptide Receptor Genes in the Developing Dorsal Spinal Cord Zhen Guo, Congling Zhao, Menggui Huang, Tianwen Huang, Mingran Fan, Zhiqin Xie, Ying Chen, Xiaolin Zhao, Guannan Xia, Junlan Geng, and Leping Cheng.

Increased glutamate/glutamine compounds in the brains of patients with fibromyalgia: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.Valdés M, Collado A, Bargalló N, Vázquez M, Rami L, Gómez E, Salamero M.

Evaluation of the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: stuy protocol for a doubled-blind randomized controlled trial with six-mont follow-up. Bárbara Olivan-Blázquez, Marta Puebla, Bárbara Masluk, Mari-Cruz Pérez-Yus, Raquel Arcega, Eva Andrés, Yolanda López-del-Hoyo, Rosa Magallon, Miquel Roca, Javier Garcia-Campayo

Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 Upregulation Attenuates Visceral Nociception and Hyperalgesia via Spinal Mechanisms Not Related to Anti-Inflammatory or Probiotic Effects. Y. Lin, K. Roman, K. D. Foust, B. K. Kaspar, M. T. Bailey, and R. L. Stephen.

Differential dynamics of amino acid release in the amygdala and olfactory cortex during odor fear acquisition as revealed with simultaneous high temporal resolution microdialysis. Chloé Hegoburu, Yannick Sevelinges, Marc Thévenet, Rémi Gervais, Sandrine Parrot and Anne-Marie Mou.

NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity. MARTIN L. PALL

Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: mechanisms and clinical implications. Curatolo M, Arendt-Nielsen L, Petersen-Felix S.

Chronic pain alters DNA marking in the brain. McGill University Newsroom.

Reduced Cardiac Vagal Modulation Impacts on Cognitive Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Alison Beaumont,  Alexander R. Burton, Jim Lemon, Barbara K. Bennett, Andrew Lloyd,  Uté Vollmer-Conna.

Dyspnea in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Comparison of Two Prospective Cross-Sectional Studies. Murugan K. Ravindran, Oluwatoyin Adewuyi, Yin Zheng, Rakib U. Rayhan, Uyenphuong Le, Christian R. Timbol, Samantha Merck, Rania Esteitie, Michelle Cooney, Charles Read & James N. Baraniuk.

Association between major depressive disorder and heart rate variability in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Licht CM, de Geus EJ, Zitman FG, Hoogendijk WJ, van Dyck R, Penninx BW.

Reduced heart rate variability and vagal tone in anxiety: trait versus state, and the effects of autogenic training. Miu AC, Heilman RM, Miclea M.

Depression, Comorbid Anxiety Disorders, and Heart Rate Variability in Physically Healthy, Unmedicated Patients: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk. Andrew H. Kemp, Daniel S. Quintana, Kim L. Felmingham, Slade Matthews,  Herbert F. Jeline

Reduced heart rate variability predicts poor sleep quality in a case-control study of chronic fatigue syndrome. Burton AR, Rahman K, Kadota Y, Lloyd A, Vollmer-Conna U.

Molecular Pathomechanisms and New Trends in Drug Research Chapter 6.  Heat Shock Proteins. Peter Csermely and Ichiro Yahar.

Differential heat shock protein responses to strenuous standardized exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome patients and matched healthy controls. Anita A. Thambirajah BSc. Kenna Sleigh RN, MSN, PhD. H. Grant Stiver MD, FRCPC. Anthony W. Chow MD,  FACP, FRCPC.

Chronic fatigue syndrome combines increased exercise-induced oxidative stress and reduced cytokine and Hsp responses. Jammes Y, Steinberg JG, Delliaux S, Brégeon F.

Chronic fatigue syndrome: acute infection and history of physical activity affect resting levels and response to exercise of plasma oxidant/antioxidant status and heat shock proteins. Jammes Y, Steinberg JG, Delliaux S.

Time course and differential responses of the major heat shock protein families in human skeletal muscle following acute nondamaging treadmill exercise. James P. Morton, Don P. M. MacLaren,  Nigel T. Cable, Thomas Bongers, Richard D. Griffiths, Iain T. Campbell, Louise Evans, Anna Kayani, Anne McArdle, and Barry Drust.

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis – Adult & Paediatric: International Consensus Primer for Medical Practitioners. Carruthers, van de Sande.

Heat shock protein HSP70 increases the resistance of cortical cells to glutamate excitotoxicity. Mokrushin AA, Pavlinova LI, Plekhanov AY

Heat shock proteins and virus replication: hsp70s as mediators of the antiviral effects of prostaglandins. Santoro MG.

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome. Papadopoulos AS, Cleare AJ.

Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis – a review. Heesen C, Gold SM, Huitinga I, Reul JM.

Synaptic regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and its modulation by glucocorticoids and stress. Benjamin H. Levy and Jeffrey G. Tasker.

Stress-induced priming of glutamate synapses unmasks associative short-term plasticity. J Brent Kuzmiski, Vincent Marty, Dinara V Baimoukhametova & Jaideep S Bains.

Role of GABA and Glutamate Circuitry in Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Stress Integration JAMES P. HERMAN, NANCY K. MUELLER, HELMER FIGUEIREDO

Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder. Ravindran LN, Stein MB.

Does the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Involve the Autonomic Nervous System? Roy Freeman, MD, , Anthony L. Komaroff, MD.

Symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in chronic fatigue syndrome. J.L. NEWTON, O. OKONKWO, K. SUTCLIFFE, A. SETH, J. SHIN and D.E.J. JONES. 

Reduced Cardiac Vagal Modulation Impacts on Cognitive Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Alison Beaumont,  Alexander R. Burton,  Jim Lemon,  Barbara K. Bennett, Andrew Lloyd,  Uté Vollmer-Conna.

Small fibers in fibromyalgia syndrome. Nurcan Üçeyler, Daniel Zeller, Ann-Kathrin Kahn, Susanne Kewenig, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Annina Schmid, Jordi Casanova-Molla, Karlheinz Reiners, Claudia Sommer.

Autonomic neuropathy. Neuropathy – autonomic; Autonomic nerve disease Pubmed Heath.

Autonomic Neuropathy.

Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: clinical implications. Karayannis G, Giamouzis G, Cokkinos DV, Skoularigis J, Triposkiadis F.

A Review of the Biochemistry, Metabolism and Clinical Benefits of Thiamin(e) and Its Derivatives. Derrick Lonsdale.

Excitotoxic cytopathology, progression, and reversibility of thiamine deficiency-induced diencephalic lesions.

Zhang SX, Weilersbacher GS, Henderson SW, Corso T, Olney JW, Langlais PJ.

Thiamine deficiency results in downregulation of the GLAST glutamate transporter in cultured astrocytes

Alan S. Hazell, Pierre Pannunzio, K.V. Rama Rao, David V. Pow, Andrea Rambald

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy Wikipedia

Does the chronic fatigue syndrome involve the autonomic nervous system? Freeman R, Komaroff AL.

Cerebral vascular control is associated with skeletal muscle pH in chronic fatigue syndrome patients both at rest and during dynamic stimulation  Jiabao He, Kieren G. Hollingsworth, Julia L. Newton, Andrew M. Blamirea

Tinnitus: Is This What Happens When the Brain’s Gatekeeper Breaks Down? NIH – National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders

Dysregulation of limbic and auditory networks in tinnitus. Leaver AM, Renier L, Chevillet MA, Morgan S, Kim HJ, Rauschecker JP.

Revisiting Baclofen for the Treatment of Severe Chronic Tinnitus Paul F. Smith, Yiwen Zheng, and Cynthia L. Darlington

Safety of Intratympanic Injection of AM-101 in Patients with Acute Inner Ear Tinnitus Muehlmeier G. · Biesinger E. · Maier H.

Stiff-Person-SyndromeReferences For “Does A Rare Neurological Disorder Provide Clues to ME/CFS and FM? The Neuroinflammation Series

Stiff person syndrome. Duddy ME, Baker MR.


Stiff Person Syndrome



National Institutes of Health – NINDS Stiff-Person Syndrome Information Page


Baclofen in Treatment of the ‘Stiff-Man’ Syndrome

Joseph L. Whelan, MD


Treatment of stiff person syndrome with rituximab.

Baker MR, Das M, Isaacs J, Fawcett PR, Bates D.


Childhood Stiff-Person Syndrome Improved with Rituximab

R. Fekete, J. Jankovic


The acoustic startle reflex in stiff-man syndrome.

Matsumoto JY, Caviness JN, McEvoy KM.


Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression.

Maes M, Twisk FN, Ringel K.


Contrasting neuroendocrine responses in depression and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Cleare AJBearn JAllain TMcGregor AWessely SMurray RMO’Keane V.


EEG spectral coherence data distinguish chronic fatigue syndrome patients from healthy controls and depressed patients–a case control study.

Duffy FH, McAnuity GB, McCreary MC, Cuchural GJ, Komaroff AL


Discriminating between chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: a cognitive analysis.

Moss-Morris, R, Petrie K


Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology.

Shungu DCWeiduschat NMurrough JWMao XPillemer SDyke JPMedow MSNatelson BHStewart JMMathew SJ.


Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome measured by 1H MRS imaging at 3.0 T. II: comparison with major depressive disorder.

Murrough JWMao XCollins KAKelly CAndrade GNestadt PLevine SMMathew SJShungu DC.


Cerebral perfusion in chronic fatigue syndrome and depression.

MacHale, SM, Lawrie, SM, Cavanagh, JT, Glabus, MF, Murray, CL, Goodwin, GM, Ebmeier KP,


SPECT imaging of the brain: comparison of findings in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, AIDS dementia complex, and major unipolar depression.

Schwartz RB, Komaroff AL, Garada BM, Gleit M, Doolittle TH, Bates DW, Vasile RG, Holman Bl.


Biological underpinnings of the commonalities in depression, somatization, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

George Anderson, Michael Maes, Michael Berk


IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against anchorage epitopes are greater in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) than in major depression.

Maes, M, Mihaylova, Kubera, M, Leunis, JC, Twisk, FN, Geffard, M.


Inflammatory and cell-mediated immune biomarkers in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and depression: inflammatory markers are higher in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome than in depression.

Maes MTwisk FNRingel K.


Stiff-Person syndrome and generalized anxiety disorder

Ana Claudia Rodrigues de Cerqueira; José Marcelo Ferreira Bezerra; Márcia Rozenthal; Antônio Egídio NardiI


Specific phobia is a frequent non-motor feature in stiff man syndrome

P Henningsen, H-M Meinck


Human Stiff-Person Syndrome IgG Induces Anxious Behavior in Rats

Christian Geis, Andreas Weishaupt, Benedikt Grünewald, Thomas Wultsch, Andreas Reif, Manfred Gerlach, Ron Dirkx, Michele Solimena, Daniela Perani, Manfred Heckmann, Klaus V. Toyka, Franco Folli, Claudia Sommer


Blood Brain Barrier – The Role of GAD Antibodies in Psychiatry

Atmaram Yarlagadda, MD, Badalin Helvink, MD, Caroline Chou, MD, and Anita H. Clayton, MD


Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis

Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium


Stiff Person Syndrome Medscape Reference

Author: Nancy Theresa Rodgers-Neame, MD; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, CPE


Muscle fiber velocity and electromyographic signs of fatigue infibromyalgia.

Klaver-Król EG, Rasker JJ, Henriquez NR, Verheijen WG, Zwarts MJ.


Stiff-person syndrome following West Nile fever.

Hassin-Baer S, Kirson ED, Shulman L, Buchman AS, Bin H, Hindiyeh M, Markevich L, Mendelson E.


Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: report of ten cases and comparison with viral encephalitis

M. S. Gable, S. Gavali, A. Radner, D. H. Tilley, B. Lee, L. Dyner, A. Collins, A. Dengel, J. Dalmau, and C. A. Glaser


References For “Not Fatigue After All? New Model Suggests Other Symptoms Better Explain Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS)”

Phenomenological Dimensions of Sensory Gating

William P. Hetrick, Molly A. Erickson and David A. Smith

The Sensory Gating Inventory as a potential diagnostic tool for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Sable JJ, Kyle MR, Knopf KL, Schully LT, Brooks MM, Parry KH, Diamond RE, Flink LA, Stowe R, Suna E, Thompson IA.

P50 sensory gating in children and adolescents with ADHD and effects of methylphenidate administration on P50 sensory gating

Ibrahim Durukan, Mehmet Yucel, Murat Erdem, Koray Kara, Oguzhan Oz, Dursun Karaman, Zeki Odabasi.

Use of Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in treatment of executive functioning deficits and chronic fatigue syndrome: A double blind, placebo-controlled study

Joel L. Young

Comorbid somatic symptoms and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome: sensory amplification as a common mechanism.

Geisser ME, Strader Donnell C, Petzke F, Gracely RH, Clauw DJ, Williams DA.

Sensory Gating in Adolescents with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

EM van de Putte et al

Cancer-Related Fatigue – Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Markus Horneber, Dr. med., Irene Fischer, Dr. phil., Fernando Dimeo, PD Dr. med., Jens Ulrich Rüffer, PD Dr. med., and Joachim Weis, Prof. Dr. phil.

The Comorbidity of Self-Reported Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Traumatic Symptoms

Elizabeth J. Dansie, Ph D., Pia Heppner, Ph.D., Helena Furberg, Ph.D., Jack Goldberg, Ph.D., Dedra Buchwald, M.D., Niloofar Afari, Ph.D.

A Novel Electrophysiological Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Mice

Michael J. Gandal, Richard S. Ehrlichman, Noam D. Rudnick, and Steven J. Siegel.

Isolation rearing-induced deficits in sensorimotor gating and social interaction in rats are related to cortico-striatal oxidative stress, and reversed by sub-chronic clozapine administration.

Möller M, Du Preez JL, Emsley R, Harvey BH.

Mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid produces startle reflex abnormalities and striatal damage in rats that model some features of Huntington’s disease.

Kodsi MH, Swerdlow NR.

Transcriptional control of energy homeostasis through the PGC1 coactivators

Bruce M. Spiegelman

Suppression of plasma free fatty acids upregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and delta and PPAR coactivator 1alpha in human skeletal muscle, but not lipid regulatory genes.

Watt MJ, Southgate RJ, Holmes AG, Febbraio MA.

The glutamatergic compounds sarcosine and N-acetylcysteine ameliorate prepulse inhibition deficits in metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor knockout mice

Hwei-Hsien Chen,1 Astrid Stoker,2,3 and Athina Markou2

N-acetyl cysteine as a glutathione precursor for schizophrenia–a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Berk M, Copolov D, Dean O, Lu K, Jeavons S, Schapkaitz I, Anderson-Hunt M, Judd F, Katz F, Katz P, Ording-Jespersen S, Little J, Conus P, Cuenod M, Do KQ, Bush AI.

Systemic illness moderates the impact of N-acetyl cysteine in bipolar disorder.

Magalhães PV , Dean OM , Bush AI , Copolov DL , Weisinger D , Malhi GS , Kohlmann K , Jeavons S , Schapkaitz I , Anderson-Hunt M , Berk M .

Sensory gating deficit is associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms in bipolar disorder.

Ancín I, Cabranes JA, Vázquez-Álvarez B, Santos JL, Sánchez-Morla E, García-Jiménez MÁ, Fernández C, Barabash A.

Moderate exercise increases expression for sensory, adrenergic and immune genes in chronic fatigue syndrome patients, but not in normal subjects

Alan R. Light,1,2 Andrea T. White,3 Ronald W. Hughen,1 and Kathleen C. Light1

Gene expression alterations at baseline and following moderate exercise in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

A. R. Light, L. Bateman, D. Jo, R. W. Hughen, T. A. VanHaitsma,  A. T. White,  K. C. Light

Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism associated with conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms, among adolescent male delinquents

Colin G. DeYounga, Marya Getchellb, Roman A. Koposovg,h,Carolyn M. Yrigollenc, Gerald J. Haeffelf, Britt af Klintebergj,k, Lars Orelandl,Vladislav V. Ruchkinc,m, Andrew J. Pakstise and Elena L. Grigorenko

A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

DA Rossignol and RE Frye

Oxidative stress in schizophrenia: An integrated approach

Byron K.Y. Bitanihirwe and Tsung-Ung W. Woo

Identification and Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Inflammation in Medically Ill Patients

Robert Dantzer, Lucile Capuron, Michael R. Irwin, Andrew H. Miller, Helene Ollat,Victor Hugh Perry, Sarah Rousey, and Raz Yirmiya2009

Anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants: possibilities for preventives against Alzheimer’s disease.

Hashioka S, McGeer PL, Monji A, Kanba S.

Taking the perspective that a depressive state reflects inflammation: implications for the use of antidepressants

Jill L. Littrell

Sex Hormones in Autism: Androgens and Estrogens Differentially and Reciprocally Regulate RORA, a Novel Candidate Gene for Autism

Tewarit Sarachana, Minyi Xu, Ray-Chang Wu, Valerie W. Hu

A genome-wide association study of post-traumatic stress disorder identifies the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene as a significant risk locus

M W Logue, C Baldwin, G Guffanti, E Melista, E J Wolf, A F Reardon, M Uddin, D Wildman, S Galea, K C Koenen and M W Miller

Could glutamate excitotoxicity be a key player in chronic fatigue syndrome?

Could glutamate excitotoxicity be a key player in chronic fatigue syndrome?

References For Glutamate – One More Piece in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) Puzzle? The Neuroinflammatory  Series Pt. II

Chronic fatigue syndrome is associated with metabolic syndrome: results from a case-control study in Georgia.

Maloney EM, Boneva RS, Lin JM, Reeves WC.


The Glial Glutamate Transporter 1 (GLT1) Is Expressed by Pancreatic β-Cells and Prevents Glutamate-induced β-Cell Death*

Eliana S. Di Cairano, Alberto M. Davalli, Lucia Perego, Silvia Sala, V. Franca Sacchi, Stefano La Rosa‖, Giovanna Finzi‖, Claudia Placidi‖, Carlo Capella‖, Paola Conti, Victoria E. Centonze, Francesca Casiraghi, Federico Bertuzzi, Franco Folli and Carla Perego


The relationship between bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes: More than just co-morbid disorders.

Calkin CV, Gardner DM, Ransom T, Alda M.


Maternal Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Paula Krakowiak, MS, Cheryl K. Walker, MD, Andrew A. Bremer, MD, PhD, Alice S. Baker, BA, Sally Ozonoff, PhD, Robin L. Hansen, MD, and Irva Hertz-Picciotto, PhD


Allostatic Load is associated with symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Pharmacogenomics 7, 485-494.

Goertzel, B., Pehnachin, C., Coelho, L., Maloney, E., Jones, J. and B. Gurbaxani


The selfish brain: competition for energy resources.

Peters A, Schweiger U, Pellerin L, Hubold C, Oltmanns KM, Conrad M, Schultes B, Born J, Fehm HL.


A randomized controlled pilot trial of oral N-acetylcysteine in children with autism.

Hardan AY, Fung LK, Libove RA, Obukhanych TV, Nair S, Herzenberg LA, Frazier TW, Tirouvanziam R.


Oral Treatment with γ-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

Jide Tian, Hoa N. Dang, Jing Yong, Wing-Sheung Chui, Matthew P. G. Dizon, Catherine K. Y. Yaw, Daniel L. Kaufman


Shared Synaptic Pathophysiology in Syndromic and Nonsyndromic Rodent Models of Autism

Stéphane J. Baudouin, Julien Gaudias, Stefan Gerharz, Laetitia Hatstatt, Kuikui Zhou, Pradeep Punnakkal, Kenji F. Tanaka3, Will Spooren, Rene Hen, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Kaspar Vogt, Peter Scheiffele


Oxidative stress, glutamate, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Coyle JT, Puttfarcken P.


A new vicious cycle involving glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics

D Nguyen, M V Alavi, K-Y Kim, T Kang, R T Scott, Y H Noh, J D Lindsey, B Wissinger, M H Ellisman, R N Weinreb, G A Perkins and W-K Ju


The neurobiological properties of Tianeptine (Stablon): from monoamine hypothesis to glutamatergic modulation

Bruce S. McEwen, Sumantra Chattarji, David M. Diamond, Thérèse M. Jay, Lawrence P. Reagan, Per Svenningsson, and Eberhard Fuchs


GLYX-13, an NMDA Receptor Glycine-Site Functional Partial Agonist, Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects Without Ketamine-Like Side Effects

Jeffrey Burgdorf, Xiao-lei Zhang, Katherine L Nicholson, Robert L Balster, J David Leander, Patric K Stanton, Amanda L Gross, Roger A Kroes and Joseph R Moskal


On the potential role of glutamate transport in mental fatigue

Lars Rönnbäck and Elisabeth Hansson


Our explanation for the origin of mental fatigue at a cellular level

University of Gothenburg


Convergent Genomic Studies Identify Association of GRIK2 and NPAS2 with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Alicia K Smith,  Hong Fang, Toni Whistler, Elizabeth R Unger, Mangalathu S Rajeevan


Huntington’s disease: the case for genetic modifiers

James F Gusella and Marcy E MacDonald


Reelin and Autism.  Prenatal Viral Infection and Development of Brain Disorder: Implications for Genesis of Schizophrenia and Autism

S. Hossein Fatemi, M.D., Ph.D


An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Leonard A. Jason, Matthew Sorenson, Nicole Porter, and Natalie Belkairous


Wikipedia – Kindling (sedative-hypnotic withdrawal)


The independent (UK) – Anti-anxiety drug benzodiazepine ‘raises elderly dementia risk’

Sensory and cognitive event-related potentials in myalgic encephalomyelitis

Deepak Prasher, Alison Smith, Leslie Findley

The little pill that could cure alcoholism

The Observer, May 2010

James Medd


Small fiber neuropathy: A burning problem



Many Fibromyalgia Patients Have Small-Fiber Polyneuropathy

Anne Louise Oaklander, MD, PhD,

Reported in Medscape and the press…/ManyFibromyalgiaPatien


Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: prevention and treatment.

Pachman DR, Barton DL, Watson JC, Loprinzi CL.


Glutamate Carboxypeptidase Inhibition Reduces the Severity of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity in Rat Valentina A. Carozzi, Alessia Chiorazzi, Annalisa Canta, Rena G. Lapidus, Barbara S. Slusher, Krystyna M. Wozniak and Guido Cavaletti n

Glutamate in CNS neurodegeneration and cognition and its regulation by GCPII inhibition. Rahn KA, Slusher BS, Kaplin AI.

Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage in Multiple Sclerosis and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Therapeutic Modulation via Fumaric Acid Esters. De-Hyung Lee, Ralf Gold and Ralf A. Linker

Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation. Philipp Albrecht, Imane Bouchachia, Norbert Goebels, Nadine Henke, Harald H Hofstetter, Andrea Issberner, Zsuzsa Kovacs, Jan Lewerenz, Dmitrij Lisak, Pamela Maher, Anne-Kathrin Mausberg, Kim Quasthoff, Corinna Zimmermann, Hans-Peter Hartung, and Axel Methner

Benefit from B-Lymphocyte Depletion Using the Anti-CD20 Antibody Rituximab in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. A Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study. Øystein Fluge,  Ove Bruland,  Kristin Risa,  Anette Storstein,  Einar K. Kristoffersen, Dipak Sapkota,  Halvor Næss,  Olav Dahl,  Harald Nyland, Olav Mella

Altered functional B-cell subset populations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome compared to Healthy Controls A.S. Bradley, B. Ford and A.S. Bansal

B cells promote insulin resistance through modulation of T cells and production of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Winer DA, Winer S, Shen L, Wadia PP, Yantha J, Paltser G, Tsui H, Wu P, Davidson MG, Alonso MN, Leong HX, Glassford A, Caimol M, Kenkel JA, Tedder TF, McLaughlin T, Miklos DB, Dosch HM, Engleman EG.

Clinical experience and laboratory investigations in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Prof Josep Dalmau, MD, Eric Lancaster, MD, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, MD, Prof Myrna R Rosenfeld, MD, and Prof Rita Balice-Gordon, PhD

GABA(B) receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis and anti-GAD-associated neurologic disorders.Boronat A, Sabater L, Saiz A, Dalmau J, Graus F.

Possible role for glutamic acid decarboxylase in fibromyalgia symptoms: a conceptual model for chronic pain. Fitzgerald CT, Carter LP.

Rituximab used successfully in the treatment of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.Ikeguchi R, Shibuya K, Akiyama S, Hino S, Kubo H, Takeda T, Shibata N, Yamamoto K.

Does methylphenidate reduce the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome? Blockmans D, Persoons P, Van Houdenhove B, Bobbaers H.

Dopamine gating of glutamatergic sensorimotor and incentive motivational input signals to the striatum.Horvitz JC.

Importance of the COMT gene for sex differences in brain function and predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Tunbridge EM, Harrison PJ.

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): a gene contributing to sex differences in brain function, and to sexual dimorphism in the predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Harrison PJ, Tunbridge EM.

Genetic modulation of GABA levels in the anterior cingulate cortex by GAD1 and COMT.Marenco S, Savostyanova AA, van der Veen JW, Geramita M, Stern A, Barnett AS, Kolachana B, Radulescu E, Zhang F, Callicott JH, Straub RE, Shen J,  Weinberger DR.

Exciting Times beyond the Brain: Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Peripheral and Non-Neural TissuesMarcela Julio-Pieper, Peter J. Flor, Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan

HERVThe Immune System and Neuroinflammation: Cytokines, NK Cells and Bugs – Part V of the Neuroinflammatory Series in ME/CFS

Immunological abnormalities as potential biomarkers in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Ekua W Brenu, Mieke L van Driel, Don R Staines, Kevin J Ashton, Sandra B Ramos, James Keane, Nancy G Klimas and Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and Chronic Fatigue (CF) are distinguished accurately: results of supervised learning techniques applied on clinical and inflammatory data.

Maes M, Twisk FN, Johnson Chronic fatigue syndrome, the immune system and viral infection

A.S. Bansal, A.S. Bradley, K.N. Bishop, S. Kiani-Alikhan, B. Ford Association of peripheral inflammatory markers with chronic fatigue in a population-based sample Charles L. Raison,  Jin-Mann S. Lin, William C. Reeves

Medscape – Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Clinical Presentation. Author: Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos, MD, PhD, MBA, FACP, AGAF; Chief Editor: Julian Katz, MD.

TRAF1-C5 Affects Quality of Life in Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis. Joanna Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Ewa Wunsch, Agnieszka Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Daniel S. Smyk, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Malgorzata Milkiewicz, and Piotr Milkiewicz

Natural Killer Cell Function, an Important Target for Infection and Tumor Protection, Is Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes. Jeannig Berrou,  Sophie Fougeray,  Marion Venot,  Victor Chardiny,  Jean-François Gautier, Nicolas Dulphy,  Antoine Toubert,  Marie-Noëlle Peraldi.

Oxygen radical-induced natural killer cell dysfunction: role of myeloperoxidase and regulation by serotonin. Åsa Betten, Claes Dahlgren, Ulf-Henrik Mellqvist, Svante Hermodsson and Kristoffer Hellstrand

Proteasome inhibition induces apoptosis in primary human natural killer cells and suppresses NKp46-mediated cytotoxicity. Xiangling Wang, Astrid Ottosson, Chunyan Ji, Xiaoli Feng, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Jan-Inge Henter, Bengt Fadeel, and Chengyun Zheng

Longitudinal investigation of natural killer cells and cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. Ekua W Brenu, Mieke L van Driel, Donald R Staines, Kevin J Ashton, Sharni L Hardcastle, James Keane, Lotti Tajouri, Daniel Peterson, Sandra B Ramos and Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik.

CD56bright Human NK Cells Differentiate into CD56dim Cells: Role of Contact with Peripheral Fibroblasts. Antoni Chan, Deng-Li Hong, Ann Atzberger, Simon Kollnberger, Andrew D. Filer, Christopher D. Buckley, Andrew McMichael, Tariq Enver and Paul Bowness

CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells: an important NK cell subset. Poli A, Michel T, Thérésine M, Andrès E, Hentges F, Zimmer J.

Prolonged Illness after Infectious Mononucleosis Is Associated with Altered Immunity but Not with Increased Viral Load. Barbara Cameron, Mandvi Bharadwaj, Jacqueline Burrows, Chrysa Fazou, Denis Wakefield, Ian Hickie, Rosemary Ffrench, Rajiv Khanna and Andrew Lloyd

Chronic fatigue syndrome following infections in adolescents. Ben Z Katz, Leonard A Jason

Glutamate released by Japanese encephalitis virus-infected microglia involves TNF-α signaling and contributes to neuronal death. Chun-Jung Chen, Yen-Chuan OU, Cheng-Yi Chang, Hung-Chuan Pan, Su-Lan Liao, Shih-Yun Chen, Shue-Ling Raung, Ching-Yi Lai

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase val158met Genotype Affects Processing of Emotional Stimuli in the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex. Michael N. Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Jana Wrase, Sabine M. Grüsser, Herta Flor, Karl Mann, Dieter F. Braus, David Goldman, Christian Büchel, and Andreas Heinz.

SNPedia rs4680 (Val158Met).

GENE REVEALS SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE BRAIN. British Association for Psychopharmocology – Press release. Dr Elizabeth Tunbridge.

Etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome: testing popular hypotheses using a national birth cohort study. Harvey SB, Wadsworth M, Wessely S, Hotopf M.

Regulatory CD56bright natural killer cells mediate immunomodulatory effects of IL-2Rα-targeted therapy (daclizumab) in multiple sclerosisBibiana Bielekova, Marta Catalfamo, Susan Reichert-Scrivner, Amy Packer, Magdalena Cerna, Thomas A. Waldmann, Henry McFarland, Pierre A. Henkart, and Roland Martin.

Molecular mechanisms mediated by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in autoimmunity. Balada E, Ordi-Ros J, Vilardell-Tarrés M.

Expression of HERV-Fc1, a human endogenous retrovirus, is increased in patients with active Multiple Sclerosis. Magdalena Janina Laska, Tomasz Brudek, Kari Konstantin Nissen, Tove Christensen, Møller-Larsen Anné, Thor Petersen and Bjørn Andersen Nexø

Human endogenous retroviruses: nature, occurrence, and clinical implications in human disease. H B Urnovitz and W H Murphy

Ancient Retrovirus May Contribute to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmunity Reuters

Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K18 Superantigen Expression and Human Herpesvirus-6 and Human Herpesvirus-7 Viral Loads in Chronic Fatigue Patients. Brendan Oakes, Matthias Hoagland-Henefield, Anthony L. Komaroff, Jessica L. Erickson, and Brigitte T. Huber

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Duodenum of Individuals Diagnosed with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Are Uniquely Immunoreactive to Antibodies to Human Endogenous Retroviral Proteins. KENNY L. DE MEIRLEIR, SVETLANA F. KHAIBOULLINA1, MARC FRÉMONT, JAN HULSTAERT, ALBERT A. RIZVANOV,  ANDRÁS PALOTÁS and VINCENT C. LOMBARDI

Influence of Antipsychotic Drugs on Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) Transcription in Brain Cells. Olivia Diem,  Marisa Schäffner, Wolfgang Seifarth, and Christine Leib-Mösch.

Molecular characteristics of Human Endogenous Retrovirus type-W in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. H Perron, N Hamdani, R Faucard, M Lajnef, S Jamain, C Daban-Huard, S Sarrazin, E LeGuen, J Houenou, M Delavest, H Moins-Teiserenc, D Bengoufa, R Yolken, A Madeira, M Garcia-Montojo, N Gehin, I Burgelin, G Ollagnier, C Bernard, A Dumaine, A Henrion, A Gombert, K Le Dudal, D Charron, R Krishnamoorthy, R Tamouza and M Leboyer.

Polymorphisms in human endogenous retrovirus K-18 and risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with schizophrenia. Dickerson F, Rubalcaba E, Viscidi R, Yang S, Stallings C, Sullens A, Origoni A, Leister F, Yolken R..

No association of polymorphisms in human endogenous retrovirus K18 and CD48 with schizophrenia. Nyegaard M, Demontis D, Thestrup BB, Hedemand A, Sørensen KM, Hansen T, Werge T, Hougaard DM, Yolken RH, Mortensen PB, Mors O, Børglum AD.

N-Linked Glycosylation and Sequence Changes in a Critical Negative Control Region of the ASCT1 and ASCT2 Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Determine Their Retroviral Receptor Functions. Mariana Marin, Dimitri Lavillette, Sean M. Kelly, and David Kabat

GABBR1 has a HERV-W LTR in its regulatory region – a possible implication for schizophrenia. Hedi Hegyi.

Raltegravir (Isentress) Pilot Study in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (INSPIRE)/ Gavin Giovannoni, Queen Mary University of London

Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Injury in Chronic Multisymptom Conditions: From Gulf War Illness to Autism Spectrum Disorder. Beatrice A. Golomb.


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